The archaeological sites in the Wye Valley AONB range from Bronze Age round barrows and Iron Age hillforts, such as Symonds Yat and Little Doward which provide spectacular vantage points over the valley.

These Iron Age forts along the lower Wye Valley, and in the Woolhope area, took advantage of the natural hilltops and promontories to form well-defended settlements. It is likely that many of these marked the edges of disputed tribal pre-Roman territories. The longest ancient earthwork, 8th century Offa's Dyke, also runs through the Wye Valley from Chepstow to Monmouth.

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